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PC机启动过程

joe posted @ 2010年4月24日 17:15 in 电脑基础 with tags MBR 启动 , 2964 阅读

当我们按下插座开关时,ATX电源副电源开始工作,输出5VSB(Standby Voltage)待机电压,给开机电路提供电源。当我们按下电脑机箱上的开机按钮时,主机板上的南桥开机电路输出一个低电平给ATX电源的16脚(绿色)。ATX电源主电源启动工作,输出多路电压。

当稳定后(此时间很短),ATX电源的8脚(灰色)输出一个PWR_OK信号,表示输出稳定,主机板可以安全的启动了。此时主机板开时启动,CPU 从BIOS里读取指令,执行,此过程称作POST(Power On Self Test)。POST主要检测硬件是否良好(如:内存,显卡等)。如果POST阶段不出问题,则BIOS找到第一启动设备(如硬盘),将控制权交与硬盘上 的MBR(Master Boot Record主引导记录)。MBR的组成可以参考维基百科。

MBR开始引导硬盘上的操作系统。我们的操作系统一般是放在硬盘上的,MBR负责将操作系统载入内存,然后操作系统会常驻内存。首先是启动内核(kernel),初始化各种设备,然后启动各种服务进程,进入登入界面,供使用者登入。

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